A key purpose of ERIC is to share stories, experiences and learning about ethical issues and concerns that shape research involving children and young people. Case studies have been contributed by researchers, using their own words, to assist others to reflect critically on some of the more difficult and contested ethical issues they may encounter. These case studies which are from diverse international contexts and different research paradigms highlight the processes that can be engaged in developing ethical thinking and improving ethical practice in research with children. Researchers are invited to consider these case studies in light of their own experience and context.

We warmly welcome further case study contributions where these clearly provide examples of ethical issues and challenges arising in research involving children. Please contact us via the contact form (on the contact page) to discuss your suggested contribution.

Harms and Benefits

Implementing international research ethics in the complex realities of local contexts: Poverty, the cultural value of hospitality, and researchers trying to ‘do no harm’ in Pakistan. Sadaf Shallwani

Facilitating future benefit when a participant has a degenerative illness and cannot give consent. Andrew Williams

The work with interpreters in a cultural-sensitive environment.  Silvia Exenberger

The impact of shared information in focus groups on children’s relationships. Hilde Lauwers

Inclusion and representation issues with child researchers in Uganda. Clare Feinstein and Claire O’Kane

Interviewing children on sensitive issues around violence: Do survey instruments and processes on violence against children provide adequate measures to protect children aged 13-17 years? Mary Catherine Maternowska

Incidental brain findings in neuroimaging research. Sebastian Lipina

Dilemmas of dealing with distress during interviews with children. Elsbeth Robson and Ruth Evans

Finding the balance between protection and participation: What do you do when follow-up services are not readily available? Mónica Ruiz-Casares

Dilemmas at school: How and when to support the inclusion of students with disability. Jude MacArthur

Discussing ethics with children. Kitty Jurrius

Working with socially excluded and multiply vulnerable children in research: Using participatory methods with young carers. Jo Aldridge

Ethical considerations when conducting research with young children on distressing subjects. Caroline Leeson

Informed Consent

Obtaining informed and voluntary consent in a group context. Muireann Ni Raghallaigh and Robbie Gilligan

Picturing consent: Using photographs in a visual consent form. Jennifer Thompson

Responding to real world ethical challenges when conducting research with young children in Tanzania. Kate McAlpine

The challenge of ongoing consent? Michael Gaffney

Caregiver consent for child participation in research: Reaching and protecting the most vulnerable. Lucie Cluver, Franziska Meinck and Mark Boyes

Using magnets to visualise informed consent in school-based fieldwork with children. Marlies Kustatscher

Addressing issues of consent and participation in research with young people. Paulina Billett

Privacy and Confidentiality

Maintaining confidentiality of responses and preventing social desirability bias with an innovative method: The polling booth in research on early marriage including child marriage. Urvashi Wattal and Angela Chaudhuri

Interviewing children with disability in the presence of a parent. Berni Kelly

Child protection and confidentiality: Surveying children’s experiences of violence, abuse and neglect. Lorraine Radford

Peer research and young people in and leaving out-of-home care. Clare Lushey and Emily Munro

Payment and Compensation

Ethical considerations when using incentives in youth research. Kathryn Seymour

Payment in different contexts: How can payment reflect local considerations? Virginia Morrow

Payments to young researchers in Malawi. Elsbeth Robson, Alister Munthali, Gina Porter and Kate Hampshire

While endeavouring to ensure these case studies are framed to assist readers in reflecting critically on ethical issues in particular contexts, the content ultimately reflects the views and experiences of the contributors and not necessarily those of the ERIC project partners.